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 الشرح الكامل لجميع أزمنة اللغة الانجليزية

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عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 680
العمر العمر : 26
الموقع : الجزائر في قلبي
عدد النقاط عدد النقاط : 1386
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 09/09/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: الشرح الكامل لجميع أزمنة اللغة الانجليزية   الثلاثاء 24 مارس 2009, 11:30 pm

English Tenses

اليوم سوف نقوم بشرح جميع ازمنة اللغة الانجليزية اسال من الله ان يوفقني وان تعود بالنفع علي كل اعضاء منتدانا الغالي سوف يتتضمن الموضع الازمنة بالترتيب التالي

Simple Present
Present Continuous
Simple Past
Past Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perf. Cont.
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Cont.
Simple Future
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Cont
Used to
Would Always
Future in Past


Simple Present


يتكون زمن المضارع البسيط من الفعل في المصدر مع اضافة s للفعل عندما يكون الفاعل مفرد غائب ( he , she ,it)

FORM Simple Present

EXAMPLE
To run

I run
you run
he runs
she runs
it runs
we run
they run

استخداماته
USE 1 Repeated Actions
الافعال المتكررة

يسنخدم المضارع البسيط للتعبير عن فعل يتكررعادة. الفعل ممكن ان يكون عاده او هواية او فعل يتكرر كل يوم او فعل مؤكد حدوثه او شىء غالبا ما يحدث
ممكن ان يعبر ايضا عن شىء غالبا ما ينساه الفرد او لا يفعله

Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does
not do

EXAMPLES
لاحظ اضافة s عندما يكون الفاعل مفرد غائب

I play tennis
She does not play tennis
The train leaves every morning at 8 am
The train does not leave at 9am
She always forgets her purse
He never forgets his wallet
Every twelve months, the Earth circles the sun
The sun does not circle the Earth

USE 2 Facts or Generalizations
حقائق او التعميمات

يستخدم المضارع البسيط اذا كان المتحدث يعتقد الامر صحيح من قبل و صحيح الان و سوف يكون صحيح في المستقبل. ولا يهم اذا كان كلام المتحدث سليما ام لا
يستخدم ايضا لاصدار التعميمات عن الناس أوالأشياء

The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people
or things

EXAMPLES

Cats like milk
Birds do not like milk
The sun rises from the east
California is in America
California isnot in the United Kingdom
Windows are made of glass
Windows are not made of wood
New York is a small city
(It is not important that this fact is untrue)

(USE 3 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs

قد يستخدم المضارع البسيط للتعبير عن حدث ممكن ان يحدث او لا يحدث الان
وهذه الحالة تكون مصحوبة ب Non-continuous ,Mixed Verbs

Sometimes speakers use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs

EXAMPLES

I am here now
She is not here now
He needs help right now
He does not need help now
He has a car

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Simple Present
EXAMPLES

Once a week, Tom cleans the car. ACTIVE
Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. PASSIVE
Present Continuous

FORM Present Continuous

يتكون زمن المضارع المستمرمن فعل يكون TO BE ثم الفعل مضافا اليه ING

[AM / IS / ARE] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLES

I am watching TV
He is quickly learning the language

ملاحظه : عند استخدام باكثر من جزء ياتي الظرف بين الجزء الاول و الثاني
NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Present Continuous (is learning), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (is quickly learning)

استخداماته

USE 1 Now

يستخدم زمن المضارع المستمر للتعبير عن فعل يحدث الان او لا يحدث الان

Use the Present Continuous with Continuous Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now

EXAMPLES

You are learning English now
You are not swimming now
I am sitting
I am not standing
They are reading their books
They are not watching television
؟What are you doing
؟Why aren't you doing your homework

USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

في اللغة الانجليزية كلمة الان ممكن ان تعني هذه اللحظة او اليوم او هذا الشهر اوهذا العام او هذا القرن و هكذا. احيانا نستخدم المضارع المستمر لنقول اننا عمل ما و العمل يسير قدما . من الممكن اننا لا نقوم بالفعل لحظه الكلام

In English, now can mean "this second," "today," "this month," "this year," "this century" and so on. Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.

EXAMPLES
(All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant)

I am studying to become a doctor
I am not studying to become a dentist
I am reading the book Tom Sawyer
I am not reading any books right now
Are you working on any special projects at work?
Aren't you teaching at the University now?

USE 3 Near Future

يستخدم المضارع المستمر للتعبير عن شىء سوف يحدث او لا يحدث في المستقبل القريب

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future

EXAMPLES

I am meeting some friends after work
I am not going to the party tonight
Is he visiting his parents next weekend
Isn't he coming with us tonight

"USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always

قد يأتي المضارع المستمر مصحوبا بكلمة مثل always او constantly بمعني دائما ليعبر عن صدمة او مفاجأه غالبا ما تحدث و هو يؤدي معني قريب في هذه الحالة من المضارع البسيط لكن للتعبير عن المشاعر السلبيه. تذكر يجب و ضع كلمه always بين verb to BE و verb+ing

The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing"

EXAMPLES

She is always coming to class late
He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up
I don't like them because they are always complaining

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Continuous

EXAMPLES

Right now, Tom is writing the letter. ACTIVE
Right now, the letter is being written by Tom PASSIVE


Simple Past

FORM Simple Past

يتكون زمن الماضي البسيط من الفعل مضاف له ed
( verb+ed)

EXAMPLES
I visited my friends
I often visited my friends

استخداماته

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

يستخدم زمن الماضي البسيط للتعبير عن حدث بدأ و انتهي في وقت محدد بالماضي

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind

EXAMPLES

I saw a movie yesterday
I didn't see a movie yesterday
Last year, I travelled to Japan
Last year, I didn't travel to Japan
She washed her car
She didn't wash her car

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

نستخدم زمن الماضي البسيط لسرد مجموعة من الاحداث انتهت في الماضي

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions
in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th ...


EXAMPLES

I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim
He arrived from the airport at 8, checked into the hotel at 9, and met the others at 10

USE 3 Single Duration

يمكن ان يستخدم الماضي البسيط لمده زمنية بدأت و انتهت في الماضي. المدة الزمنية الطويلة غالبا ما تكون مصحوبة ببعض التعبيرات مثل for two years او
for five minutes او all day
او all year

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a long action often used with expressions like "for two years," "for five minutes," "all day" or "all year"

EXAMPLES

I lived in Brazil for two years
Shauna studied Japanese for five years
They sat at the beach all day
We talked on the phone for thirty minutes
؟How long did you wait for them
We waited for one hour

USE 4 Habit in the Past

للتعبير عن عادة في الماضي

يمكن ان يستخدم الماضي البسيط ايضا للتعبير عن عاده توقفت في الماضي

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past

EXAMPLES

I studied French when I was a child
He played the violin
She worked at the movie theater after school
They never went to school, they always skipped

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Simple Past

EXAMPLES

Tom repaired the car - ACTIVE
The car was repaired by Tom - PASSIVE
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http://ouledderradj.mountada.net
yaagoub-b28
المدير
avatar

عدد المساهمات عدد المساهمات : 680
العمر العمر : 26
الموقع : الجزائر في قلبي
عدد النقاط عدد النقاط : 1386
تاريخ التسجيل تاريخ التسجيل : 09/09/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: الشرح الكامل لجميع الازمنة في اللغة الانجليزية   الثلاثاء 24 مارس 2009, 11:32 pm

Past Continuous


يتكون زمن الماضي المستمر من WAS / WERE ثم الفعل مضافا اليه ing
[WAS / WERE] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLES

I was studying when she called
I was carefully picking up the snake when it bit me

NOTE : When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Past Continuous (was picking), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (was carefully picking)
الاستخدامات

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past

يستخدم الماضي المستمر ببيان فعل تمت مقاطعته في الماضي. و المقاطعه غالبا ما تكون ماضي بسيط
Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually an action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time

EXAMPLES

I was watching TV when she called
When the phone rang, she was writing a letter
While we were having a picnic, it started to rain
Sally was working when Joe had the car accident
While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption

تحديد وقت معين كمقاطعه لفعل حدث في الماضي

In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by an action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption

EXAMPLES

Last night at 6 p.m., I was eating dinner
At midnight, we were still driving through the desert

IMPORTANT

Last night at 6 p.m., I had dinner
بدأت الاكل السادسة

Last night at 6 p.m., I was having dinner
عندما حانت الساعة السادسه كنت آكل بالفعل

USE 3 Parallel Actions

نستخدم الماضي المستمر عند وصف اكثر من فعل و هذه الافعال حدثت في نفس الوقت
When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel


EXAMPLES

I was studying while he was making dinner
While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television
They were eating dinner, discussing their plans and having a good time

USE 4 Atmosphere
يستخدم المضارع المستمر لوصف المناخ العام لمجموعة من الاحداث في الماضي
In English we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere in the past

EXAMPLE

When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad
service

USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with Always

يستخدم ايضا لوصف التكرار و الاثارة لاحداث غالبا ما كانت تحدث في الماضي

EXAMPLES

She was always coming to class late
He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone
I didn't like them because they were always complaining

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Past Continuous
EXAMPLES

The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store - ACTIVE

The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store - PASSIVE


Present Perfect


يتككون زمن المضارع التام من HAS / HAVE ثم التصريف الثالث للفعل
[HAS / HAVE] + [past participle]

EXAMPLES

I have seen that movie many times
I have never seen that movie

الاستخدامات

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

يعبر زمن المضارع التام لوصف فعل بدأ في الماضي في وقت غير محدد. و الوقت المحدد غير مهم و لا يمكن استخدام تعبيرات زمنية مثل yesterday اوone year ago او when I was a chlid الخ

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with time expressions such as "yesterday," "one year ago," "last week," "when I was a chlid," "when I lived in Japan," "at that moment," "that day" or "one day." We CAN use the Present Perfect with expressions like "ever," "never," "once," "many times," "several times," "before," "so far," "already" and "yet"

EXAMPLES

I have seen that movie twenty times
I think I have met him once before
There have been many earthquakes in California
؟Has there ever been a war in the United States
Yes, there has been a war in the United States
People have traveled to the moon

(USE 2 Duration From Past Until Now Non-continuous Verbs

للتعبير عن شيء ما بدأ في الماضي و استمر الي الان

With Non-continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks" and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect

EXAMPLES

I have had a cold for two weeks
She has been in England for six months
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Perfect

EXAMPLES

Many tourists have visited that castle - ACTIVE
That castle has been visited by many tourists PASSIVE


Present Perfect Continuous


يتكون زمن المضارع التام المستمر من
[HAS / HAVE] + [BEEN] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLES

I have been waiting here for two hours
She has only been studying English for two years

استخداماته

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

يستخدم زمن المضارع التام المستمر للتعبير عن حدث بدأ في الماضي و استمر الي الان

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes", "for two weeks", and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect
Continuous

EXAMPLES

They have been talking for the last hour
She has been working at that company for three years
James has been teaching at the University since June

USE 2 Recently, Lately

يستخدم زمن المضارع التام المستمر بدون فترة زمنية لاعطاء معني اشمل و اعم
و نستخدم عامة في هذه الحاله تعبيرات مثل lately( مؤخرا)

You can use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for five minutes", "for two weeks", and "since Tuesday". Without the durations, the this tense gives a more general meaning of "lately". We often use the words "lately" or "recently" in the sentence to strengthen this meaning

EXAMPLES

Recently, I have been feeling really tired
She has been watching too much television lately
Mary has been feeling a little depressed
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Perfect Continuous

EXAMPLES

Recently, John has been doing the work - ACTIVE
Recently, the work has been being done by John - PASSIVE

ملحوظة : زمن المضارع التام المستمر نادرا ما ياتي بصيغه الغير مباشر
NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is rarely used in its passive form



Past Perfect


يتكون زمن الماضي التام من [HAD] + [PAST PARTICIPLE]
التصريف الثالث للفعل

:Examples

I had studied a little English when I came to the U.S
They had never met an American until they met John

استخداماته

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in Past

يستخدم زمن الماضي التام للتعبير عن حدث انتهي في الماضي قبل حدث آخر. ممكن ان يعبر ايضا عن شيء حدث قبل وقت محدد في الماضي
The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

EXAMPLES

I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai
؟Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 1992
Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before in 1988

(USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-continuous Verbs

يستخدم للتعبير عن شيء بدأ في الماضي و استمر الي ان حدث شيء آخر
With Non-progressive Verbs and some non-progressive uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past

EXAMPLES

We had had that car for ten years before it broke down
By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years

IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect
عند استخدام فترة زمنية محددة مع الماضي التام
عكس المضارع التام تماما ، فإنه يمكن استخدام كلمات محددة او عبارات مع الماضي التام. وإن كان ذلك ممكنا ، فإنه عادة ما لا يكون ضروريا

Unlike the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary

She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996

ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Past Perfect

George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanics license - ACTIVE
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanics license - PASSIVE



Past Perfect Continuous


يتكون زمن الماضي التام المستمر من [HAD BEEN] + [VERB+ing]

EXAMPLES

I had beenwaiting there for two hours before she finally arrived
She had only been studying English for two years before she
got the job

استخداماته

يستخدم زمن الماضي التام المستمر لوصف فترة زمنية بدأت في الماضي واستمرت حتى وقت آخر في الماضي

EXAMPLES

They USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived

She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business

James had been teaching at the University for more than a year before he left for Asia

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past

استعمال الماضي التام المستمر قبل عمل آخرفي الماضي هو طريقة جيدة لاظهار السبب والنتيجة

EXAMPLES

Jason was tired because he had been jogging
Sam gained weight because he had been overeating

ملحوظة مهمة
اذا لم تشتمل الجمله علي فترة زمنية "for five minutes," او"for two weeks" او"since Friday" الكثير من متحدثي الانجليزية يستخدمون الماضي المستمر لكن هناك اختلاف في المعنى يظهر عند مقارنة الامثلة التالية

If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday", many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous. There is also a difference in meaning. Compare the examples below

I was reading when my roommate returned
Emphasizes the interruption of "reading
يؤكد توقف "القراءة"

Emphasizes the amount of time "for an hour
يؤكد مقدار الوقت "ساعة"

EXAMPLES

Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years, before he moved to Paris - ACTIVE

The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris - PASSIVE

ملحوظة
استخدام صيغة غير المباشر غير شائعة مع زمن الماضي التام المستمر


IMPORTANT
I had been reading for an hour when my roommate returned ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Past Perfect Continuous Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect
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